Improving The Understanding Of V-Grade Students With Our Art-Cultural Wealth Materials Through Discussion Methods In Social Science Lessons


This study aims to determine the level of understanding of students, the subject of this research is the fifth-grade students of SD Negeri 001 Sebatik Utara, with a total of 25 students. Consisting of 11 Male and 14 Females. This research was conducted in two cycles based on the data before the improvement of the cycle I and cycle II, namely pre-cycle. in the pre-cycle experiment, 6 students obtained completeness with a percentage of 25%. While in the first cycle students experienced an increase of 15 students who completed with a percentage of 60%. Then the learning improvement was carried out again using cycle II. It turned out that the increase again occurred in the second cycle as many as 23 students with a percentage of 90%. While the incompleteness in this study can be detailed, namely in the pre-cycle student scores are much below the KKM standard, namely 19 students with a percentage of 75%. In the first cycle, the students' incompleteness was reduced to 10 students with a percentage of 40%. It turned out that incompleteness decreased after improvements were made to learning in cycle II as many as 2 students with a percentage of 10%. The use of method used is the discussion method where students are required to express their thoughts, ideas, ideas, opinions, and others.

Keywords: Learning Outcomes, Discussion Method


The results of the learning activities carried out at SD Negeri 001 Sebatik Utara, Kec. East Sebatik, Kab. Nunukan, shows students' understanding of social studies learning outcomes with the material Wealth of Our Cultural Arts with sub-topics, Reading at a Glance and Skilled in Using Words and Sentences. This is done to determine the level of mastery of the use of words and sentences in accordance with the EYD. Through the written test, it turns out that many students are less successful. After administering a written test several times, it just showed the expected results. It turned out that the students could not give satisfactory results with one written test. The progress that is expected to be successful is by doing several tests with the same questions, most students are still confused about taking a written test in the form of an Essay. This can be seen after the author conducts an evaluation at the end of the lesson given.

Some of the problems that have been identified and included in the author's notes, the authors can draw an analysis of the problem that has been divided into two parts. The first part is the problems that arise from the teacher and the problems that arise from the students. Here are some problem analyses from teachers that the authors have noted including (1) the teacher is too focused on the material without interacting with students, so students are neglected. (2) the teacher's explanation of the content of the material is too long-winded and uses scientific language so that many students do not understand. (3) the teacher has not been creative in using learning methods and is always monotonous in the lecture method. (4) giving examples as material in learning is always abstract, teachers rarely use concrete examples that are easy for students to understand. While the analysis of the problems of the students is (1) there are some students who pay less attention to the teacher's explanation in the learning process, so that questions arise from the teacher regarding the material discussed by the students in silence. (2) students make a lot of busy themselves so that the teacher's explanation is ignored and disrupts the learning atmosphere that is already going well. (3) when the evaluation was carried out with individual assignments, it turned out that many students collaborated (groups).

From the explanation above, it is certain that there needs to be more serious action in dealing with problems like this, from the author's identification of the problems above, the authors take action to conduct classroom action research with the aim of improving the teaching system in order to achieve maximum learning outcomes.

Based on the results of the identification of the problems that have been described in the background above, as well as being analyzed and explored with the Supervisor and Colleagues, the authors formulate the research problem as follows:

1. Applying the discussion method in improving the learning outcomes of fifth-grade students of SD Negeri 001 Sebatik Utara in social studies subjects about the material of Our Cultural Arts Wealth.

2. Improve the understanding of fifth-grade students of SD Negeri 001 Sebatik Utara on social studies subjects with the material of Our Cultural Arts Wealth through the discussion method.

In accordance with the results of the formulation of the problem that has been determined, the objectives of this study are as follows:

1. Improving students' ability in understanding social studies lessons with the Discussion method on the subject of Differences in Wealth of Our Cultural Arts and Other Business Entities in Class V SD Negeri 001 Sebatik Utara, Kec. East Sebatik, Kab. Look for the 2016/2017 academic year.

2. Analyzing the impact of applying the discussion method in improving the understanding of fifth-graders at SD Negeri 001 Sebatik Utara, Kec. East Sebatik, Kab. Nunukan in social studies subjects with the material wealth of our cultural arts.

In this classroom action research is expected to be useful or an alternative method of learning in the classroom, while the writer hopes that this research can be useful for:

Increase insight, knowledge, and intelligence in various aspects. Have high motivation and determination to learn and can grow talent and achievements in various things that they must instill in themselves.

This research can be used as a guideline to improve performance as a professional teacher, as well as to improve managed learning. In order to produce good achievements for students and also become the pride of teachers. So that teachers are more creative and innovative in carrying out their duties to guide and educate the nation's children in accordance with the teacher's pledge stated in the 1945 Constitution.

Provide the motivation to teachers to develop their creativity in carrying out their daily duties and obligations. Big capital in enriching the learning process in the classroom, both learning related to social studies subject matter or other lessons. Thus providing a revolution for teachers in increasing student interest in learning. This can be seen from the success of students in learning.

According to Winkel, studies are all mental or psychic activities that take place in active interactions in the environment, which result in changes in the management of understanding. According to Ernest R. Hilgard (in Sumardi Suryabrata, 1984:252) study is a process of action that is carried out intentionally, which then causes changes, which are different from the changes caused by others. The nature of the change is relatively permanent, it will not return to its original state. Cannot be applied to changes due to temporary situations, such as changes due to fatigue, illness, drunkenness, and so on.

Whereas Understanding Learning according to Gagne in his book The Conditions of Learning 1977, learning is a kind of change that is shown in changes in behavior, the situation is different from before the individual is in a learning situation and after taking similar action. Change occurs as a result of an experience or practice. In contrast to changes immediately due to reflexes or instinctive behavior.

Moh. Surya's (1981:32), the definition of learning is a process of the effort carried out by individuals to obtain a new change in behavior as a whole, as a result of the individual's own experience in learning the interaction with the environment. The conclusion that can be drawn from the two understandings above is that in principle, learning is a change from one's self.

Of several of the learning above, it can be concluded that all mental or psychic activities carried out by a person give rise to different behavioral changes between after learning and before learning.

Student learning outcomes according to W. Winkel (in the book Teaching Psychology 1989:82) are the success achieved by students, namely student learning achievements in schools that manifest in the form of numbers.

According to Winarno Surakhmad (in the book, Teaching and Learning Interaction, (Bandung: Jemmars, 1980:25) student learning outcomes for most people mean tests, exams, or tests. The purpose of these tests is to obtain an index in determining student success.

The method according to Djamaluddin and Abdullah Aly in Kapita Selekta of Islamic Education, (1999:114) comes from the word meta meaning through, and hodos way. So the method is the path that must be passed to achieve a goal. Meanwhile, according to the Ministry of Religion of the Republic of Indonesia in the book Methodology of Islamic Religious Education (2001:19 ) Method means a systematic way of working to facilitate the implementation of an activity in order to achieve the specified goals. According to WJS. Poerwadarminta in the Big Indonesian Dictionary, (1999:767) The method is a way that has been organized and well thought out to achieve a goal. Based on the above definition, the author can conclude that the method is the path or way taken by someone to achieve the expected goals.

Teaching is such a complex endeavor that it is difficult to determine what good teaching really is. The method is one tool to achieve the goal. While learning is an activity carried out by the teacher in such a way that student behavior changes for the better (Darsono, 2000: 24). According to Ahmadi (1997: 52), the learning method is a knowledge of teaching methods used by teachers or instructors. Another understanding says that the learning method is a presentation technique that is mastered by the teacher to teach or present lesson material to students in the classroom, either individually or in groups so that the lesson can be absorbed, understood, and utilized by students properly.


The research was conducted in class V at school SD Negeri 001 North Sebatik, Kec. East Sebatik, Kab. Nunukan. Which is located on Jl. H. Beddu Rahim RT. 08 Sei Village. Stake District. North Sebatik, Kab. Nunukan. The implementation of the research was carried out with the information that the class consisted of 25 students with details of 11 boys and 13 girls with different characteristics. The condition of the classroom where the research is conducted has an area of 8 x 7 with details of a length of 8 meters and a width of 7 meters.

This study took two weeks with the following details:

1. The pre-cycle was conducted on April 25, 2017, at SD Negeri 001 Sebatik Utara with a description of the number of students 25 people, 11 boys, and 14 girls.

2. Cycle I was held on May 08, 2017, at SD Negeri 001 Sebatik Utara with a description of the number of students 25 people, 11 boys, and 14 girls.

3. Cycle II was held on May 15, 2017, at SD Negeri 001 Sebatik Utara with a description of the number of students 25 people, 11 boys, and 14 girls.

This research design is a classroom action research design that covers the scope of the class. Classroom Action Research (CAR) is a variety of research classroom context learning carried out by teachers to solve learning problems faced by teachers, improve the quality and learning outcomes and try new things in learning for the sake of improving the quality and learning outcomes. The following is an image of the classroom action research design below.

PTK has the following characteristics:

1) Cyclical in nature, meaning that CAR looks cyclical (planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting), as a standard research procedure.

2) It is longitudinal, meaning that CAR must take place within a certain period of time (eg 2-3 months) continuously to obtain the required data, not "one-shot" after its implementation.

3) It is particular-specific so it does not mean to generalize in order to obtain the arguments. The results are not to be generalized even though they may be applied by other people and in other places with similar contexts.

4) Participatory in nature, in the sense that teachers are researchers as well as agents of change and targets that need to be changed. This means that the teacher has a dual role, namely as a person who is researching and also being researched.

5) It is emic (not ethical), meaning that CAR looks at learning from an insider's point of view that is not distant from what is being studied; not according to the point of view of outsiders who are distant from the thing being studied.

6) Collaborative or cooperative, meaning that in the implementation of CAR there is always cooperation or collaboration between researchers (teachers) and other parties for the validity and achievement of research objectives.

7) It is casuistic in nature, meaning that CAR works on specific or certain cases in learning that is real and affordable by the teacher; working on big problems.

8) Using the natural context of the class, it means that the class as a venue for the implementation of CAR does not need to be manipulated and or engineered for the needs, interests, and achievement of research objectives.

9) Prioritizing the adequacy of the data needed to achieve the research objectives, not the representativeness (representation of the number) of the sample quantitatively. Therefore, CAR only requires the use of simple statistics, not complicated ones.

Data collection in this study was carried out using two ways, namely as follows:

4. Result of observation sheet

In conducting this research, it was carried out using technical analysis with the results of observations made by the author in the following way:

5. Written test results

The results of the written test were analyzed by the level of students' understanding of the Social Science lesson using the discussion method. The researcher summed the scores obtained by the students, which was then divided by the number of students in the class so that the average test was obtained which could be formulated:

The data obtained from observations during the teaching and learning process were then analyzed descriptively so that it could be seen whether the learning objectives with the discussion method used had achieved the target or did not even reach the target. So it is necessary to consider what things will be carried out in the assessment.


Starting from research data conducted in the pre-cycle using the discussion method on the material wealth of our arts and culture, it gives some very concerning impacts. Mastery of students in the pre-cycle only reached 25%, this really illustrates that students' understanding is very low on the material wealth of our arts and culture in the subject of Social Sciences. From the percentage in the pre-cycle which only completed 25% of students in Social Science learning, it means that there are still 75% of students who have not completed Social Science lessons with the Wealth of Our Cultural Arts.

The percentage of improvement results of students who have completed learning has not increased in the pre-cycle with a percentage of 25% complete and 75% incomplete (out of a total of 25 students), student learning outcomes can be seen to increase after the first cycle of students who complete learning 60% and not complete 40 % (out of 25 students), and in the second cycle, 90% of students who finished studying and not completing 10% (of 25 students), and in the second cycle, the students' completeness in learning reached 90% by referring to the KKM standard for Social Science lessons. 70. The graph of the percentage of students who completed and did not complete is listed below.

The details on the graph with percentages can be described by the number of completeness with numbers according to the percentage of completeness. In the pre-cycle, there were 25% complete with details of 6 students, and 75% incomplete with details of 19 students. After making improvements to learning in the first cycle there are 60% complete with details of 15 students, and 40% incomplete with details of 10 students, while in the improvement of learning with cycle II there are 90% complete with details of 23 students, and 10% are incomplete with details 2 students.

From the table above, it can be seen that the achievement of grades that occurred from the first cycle experienced a fairly drastic increase with a percentage increase from 25% to 60% with a difference of 35% or equivalent to 13 students.

The improvement of learning which was carried out in two cycles on the subject of Social Science class V with the material wealth of our arts and culture using the discussion method showed satisfactory results. In the pre-cycle, only 25% (6 students) out of 25 students achieved a complete learning score with a KKM of 70, while in the first cycle only 60% (13 students) had gotten a complete score.

This pre-cycle learning, it shows that the activeness of students in participating in the learning process is also very low. This is because in the pre-cycle learning management has not been implemented that applies optimally appropriate discussion methods. Teachers only teach with the old pattern, so that children get bored easily and feel bored, not enthusiastic about learning, and teachers do not condition students to be physically and psychologically ready. To improve student learning outcomes, students must really learn comprehensively, such as the opinion of Bell-Gredler (1986: 1) which states that learning is a process carried out by humans to get a variety of competencies, skills, and attitudes.

After the implementation of the discussion method in learning Social Sciences in the first cycle, student learning outcomes began to increase when compared to pre-cycle learning. Based on the learning outcomes in the first cycle, the author tries to improve and optimize the use of discussion methods in improving learning cycle II. 

Applying appropriate discussion methods and empowering students in the learning process optimally, such as providing opportunities to ask questions, answer questions, express opinions and ideas, and use appropriate learning media, can improve student learning outcomes and student activity in the learning process. In the instructional process (learning), the source of information is the teacher, students, or other people. Only, in this case, the media gets a more specific definition, namely "message (information) technology that can be used for learning purposes" (Scramm, 1977 ), or "physical means to convey learning content/materials" (Briggs, 1997).

So it can be concluded simply that learning media is a means to channel messages or information from teachers to students or vice versa. The use of learning media will allow the learning process to occur in students and can be used to increase the effectiveness of learning activity    


This shows that with the implementation of learning improvements using this Discussion method, the teacher is able to reflect on himself so that in giving material in class it can be done correctly when giving an explanation is not too fast and the teacher is also able to give concrete examples so that it is easy to understand. by students. In addition, the teacher must also be good at choosing the right teaching method and the teacher is also pleased to provide opportunities for students to ask questions. With the implementation of improved learning in this class, of course, it makes students enthusiastic in paying attention to the teacher's explanations and it is hoped that students will be enthusiastic in paying attention to the teacher's explanations and it is also hoped that students will not imitate each other's results in class.

Based on these conclusions, there are several things that must be considered by teachers in improving the quality of student learning, namely:

1. In providing subject matter, students should involve students expressing their opinions according to the understanding possessed by these students.

2. When giving an explanation, don't be too quick and don't forget to use language that is easy for students to understand.

3. The teacher should ask questions and also provide opportunities to ask students.

4. There should be a follow-up to go through the Subject Teacher Conference ( MGMP ) and attend training in order to improve the quality of teaching.


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